The reference number shown at the end of a line in red refers to a coin held in the collection.
It is the 253rd coin purchased by Ron; it is to be found under Seaby’s catalogue number 3428
(Greek Coins and Their Values by David R. Sear); it is held in the collection under Folio 1
The first 3 digits relate to Ron's personal coin database. The next 4 to 5 digits refer to the Seaby’s Catalogue number. The last number relates to the folio number in the collection.
As an example the coin of Darius I has a reference number of 253/3428/1. This coin is therefore catalogued as follows:
(The first coin on display because it is the earliest coin)
It is the 253rd coin purchased by Ron; it is to be found under Seaby’s catalogue number 3428
(Greek Coins and Their Values by David R. Sear); it is held in the collection under Folio 1
The Seleucid kingdom had two capitals: Antioch in Syria (now Antakya, Turkey) and Seleucia on the Tigris in Mesopotamia. The Seleucids were Greeks in language and culture, and they encouraged Greek colonists to settle in their domains. Nevertheless, in their autocratic rule they followed the example of their Syrian, Mesopotamian, and Persian predecessors. Beginning with Antiochus II, they were worshipped as gods. They were frequently involved in wars with the Ptolemies, a Macedonian dynasty that had established itself in Egypt. After 250 BC the Seleucids gradually lost control of the lands east of the Euphrates River and were expelled from Asia Minor. Syria, the last remaining part of their kingdom, was annexed by Rome in 64 BC. Sections List
EARLY PERSIAN EMPIRE COINAGE
The edict of Cyrus, Jews began rebuilding the Temple in Jerusalem
Cambyses King of Persia
Darius divides Persian Empire into 20 Satraps (provinces)
Darius I,The Great (Old Test.EZRA Chap6.) 253/3428/1
Rebuilding of Temple, consecration BC 515.
BC 510 Rome declared a Republic, last King,Tarquin the Proud expelled
BC 499 Ionian Greeks revolt against Persian rule.
BC 494 Rome:Office of Tribune created to protect rights of plebes. Ionian revolt collapses.
BC 490 Darius launches attack on mainland Persia starting the Persian Wars. Persian armies defeated by Greeks at Marathon
BC 485 Death of Darius I, decline of Persia comences
BC 485-465 Persian king Xerxes I succeeds Darius
BC 483 Rich silver strike at Mount Larium provides Athens withfunds to expand its fleet.
BC 480 Persians defeated by Greeks at Salamine and Plataea (BC 479). Acropolis is destroyed by the Persians.
CLASSICAL PERIOD OF GREEK COINAGE
Battle of Platea; end of Persian invasion of Greece.
BC 477 Commencement of Athenian ascendency
BC 474 City States, Syracuse in Sicily 229/929/2
BC 464-424 Persian king Artaxerxes
BC 445 War between Athens and Sparta ends with 30 year truce. The prophet Malachi; Nehemiah rebuilds walls of Jerusalem. The Evolving Bible. A Theoretical timeline BC 444-397 Jewish revival of Judea with Nehemiah’s arrival in Jerusalem. Redaction of Torah climaxes with Ezra reading out the completed text in Temple courtyard for the first time.
BC 440 Ezra (The Scribe) and Nechemia re-dedicate Second Temple
BC 431 Peloponnesian war between Athens and Sparta begins
BC 425 City States,Gela in Sicily 149/1095/3 City States, Akragas in Sicily 195/?/4
BC 415 War renewed between Athens and Sparta
BC 402 End of Peloponnesian War.
BC 400 City of Carthage in North Africa 159/6444/5 City of Carthage 246/6520/? City states, Syracuse in Sicily 208/1193/6
BC 399 Socrates (469-399) tried on false charges of impiety and corupting youth. Found guilty, he was put to death by drinking hemlock.
BC 395 Coalition between Athens, Thebes, Corinth and Argos against the Spartans
BC 393 City of Athens 202/2537/7
BC 390 Gauls from northern Italy capture Rome,sack city and withdraw
BC 385 Plato starts teaching in Athens.
BC 375 City of Carthage in North Africa 209/?/8 City of Carthage 223/6526/9 City of Kalymna 224/4982/10
BC 359-362 Philip II of Macedon 214/6698/11
BC 350 City of Kardia (Thrace) 242/1598/12 City of Gargara 239/4089/13
BC 343 Aristotle becomes tutor to young Alexander of Macedon.
BC 338 Romans begin to use coins
BC 336 Philip II assasinated at Aegae 189/6730
BC 334-323 Alexander III (The Great) Alexander the Great succeeds Philip II 189/6730/16
Alexander the Great 107/?/14
Alexander the Great 108/?/15
Alexander the Great 238/6739/17
BC 333 Persian Empire defeated by Alexander, all Near East comes under influence of Hellinism.
BC 332-63 The Hellenistic and Hasmonean Periods in Israel
BC 332 Alexander destroyed Tyre, Egypt and Jerusalem submit to Greece
BC 332 Alexander the Great conquers Jerusalem.
Helenist period begins during which Bible is translated into Greek (Septuagint)
BC 331 Battle of Arbeles and the fall of the Persian empire.
BC 323 Death of Alexander, period of struggle for supremacy by his Generals. Ptolemaic Dynasty begins with Ptolemy I becoming King of Egypt, the Seleukid Dynasty with Seleuchus I in Syria and Messopotamia.
Seleucids, dynasty of Macedonian kings that reigned in the Middle East from the 4th to the 1st century BC. Established when the empire of Alexander the Great was partitioned among his followers, the Seleucid kingdom originally extended eastwards from Asia Minor into what is now Pakistan. The most important Seleucid kings were Seleucus I, Antiochus I, Antiochus II, Seleucus II, Antiochus III, and Antiochus IV, whose reigns spanned the period between 312 BC and 163 BC with brief interruptions.
HELLENISTIC PERIOD OF GREEK COINAGE
BC 320 Soter I invaded Syria and captured Jerusalem
BC 319-297 Kassander, son of Antipator the Regent 196/6755/18
BC 312-283 Seleukos I (Nikator), Seleukid Dynasty begins 142/6852/19
BC 312 Via Appia,Rome's first highway,built.
BC 305-283 Ptolemy I (Soter),close friend of Alex. 150/7765/20
BC 304 EGYPT: END OF LATE PERIOD
BC 301 Bible translated into Greek (Septuagint).
BC 300 City of Argos 140/?/21 City of Myrina 148/4220/22
BC 294-288 Demetrios Poliorketes,son of Antigonus 204/6774/24
BC 288-277 Interregnum period in Macedonian Dynasty 109/6781/25 City of Akragas in Sicily 210/1032/26
BC 285-246 Ptolemy II (Philadelphos) 137/7788/27 Ptolemy II 212/7774/28
Work begun on translating the Jewish Law into Greek. Appearance of the Hassidim (Pious) Onias II is High Priest
BC 280-261 Antiochus I(Soter) 229/6878/29
BC 277-239 Antigonas Gonatas 205/6788/30
BC 275c Kamnaskires-Oredes III 237-5910/31 City of Syracuse 211/1218/32
Rome is undisputed ruler of Southern Italy.
BC 269 Beginning of Roman Republic Coinage
BC 268 First appearance of silver coinage, Denari
BC 264 First record of gladiatorial combat
BC 264-261 First Punic war with Carthage,Rome ultimately victors.
BC 261 Antiochos II (Theos) 110/6879/33
BC 260 Outbreak of first Punic War between Rome and Carthage
BC 246-227 Antiochos (Hierax)
BC 246-226 Seleukos II (Kallinikos)
BC 246-221 Ptolemy III (Eurgetes) 186/7817/34
BC 239 Egyptians introduce leap year into calendar
BC 226-223 Seleukos III (Keraunos) 153/6929/35
BC 223-187 Antiochus II (The Great) 228/6956/36
BC 222-220 Molon (The Usurper)
BC 221-204 Ptolemy IV (Philopater) 193/7843/37
BC 221-179 Philip V 197/?/39
BC 220-214 Achaios
BC 218-201 Second Punic War
BC 218 Hanibal of Carthage crossed the Alps
BC 215 Great wall of China built
BC 205 The Moneyers (tresviri monetales, the three mint officials), Wolf and Twins 169/99/40
BC 204 Ptolemy V (Epiphanes) 198/7881/41
BC 200 Inscription engraved on Rosetta Stone. The Old Testament translated into Greek (Septuaginta)
BC 198 Antiochus III (The Great) took Palestine from Egypt.
Judea now under Syrian rule,favoured by Antiochus Syrian Hellodore at Jerusalem, Hellenis in Judea, Rivalry between High Priests Jason, Menelaus and Lysimaque
BC 197 The Moneyers, Head of Roma 104/112/42
Rome defeats Philip I of Macedon at Cyniscephalae
BC 195 The Moneyers, bust of Mercury 190/110/43
BC 190 Rome crushes Antiochus the Great at Magnesia
BC 187-175 Seleucus IV (Philopater) in Syria 191/6970/44
BC 180-176 Cleopatra I, Mother of Ptolemy VI 146/7903/45
BC 180-145 Ptolemy VI in Syria 145/7900/46; Ptolemy VI 234/7901/47
BC 179-168 Perseus (Last of Macedonian Dynasty) 200/6807/48
BC 175-170 Antiochos (Son of Seleukos IV)
BC 175-164 Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) 188/5507/49
BC 175 Construction of earliest known Roman pavement
BC 169 Temple violated by Antiochus IV on his return from Egypt. Creation of the Essene sect. Antiochus IV campaigns in Egypt.
BC 168 Persecution of Jews by Antiochus IV
BC 167 Hasmoneans:The Maccabees revolt to defend Jewish religion
BC 167-166 The priest Mattiathias organises opposition.
BC 165 After four decisive victories over the Hellinistic armies, Mattiathias's son Judah the Maccabee re-consecrates the Temple (Chanukat Beit Ha-Mikdash)
BC 164-162 Antiochos V (Eupator) in Syria.
BC 162-150 Demetrios I (Soter) in Syria 241/7021/50
BC 162 Timarchos
BC 155 The Moneyers, Gaius Renius 106/160/51; Republican Bronze 138/149/52
BC 153 First month of Roman year changed from March to January
BC 154 Macabean revolt; Rule of the Hasmonaean Kings; independence of Jews until BC 63.
Alexander Balas kills Antiochus VI,becomes King of Syria
Republican Rome and the Mediterranean World 150 - 95 BC
BC 150c Essene community settles in Qumran , where they remain until start of the Bar Kochba revolt 285 years later. The Biblical text written and stored there, the Dead Sea Scrolls, are the earliest surviving copies.
BC 150 City States, Selge 141/5491/53
BC 150-145 Alexander I (Balas)
BC 149 Third Punic War between Rome and Carthage.
BC 148-118 King Micipsa of Numidia 136/6597/54
BC 146 Rome utterly destroys Carthage.
BC 145-140 Demetrios II (Nikator) First Reign (See BC 129).
BC 145-122 Antiochos VI (Dionysos) 187/708/55
BC 145-116 Ptolemy VIII (Eurgetes) 194/?/56
BC 144 Jonathan Maccabaeus murdered, suceeded by Simon the last of Mattathias's five sons. He names himself High Priest.
BC 142-138 Tryphon
BC 141-137 Establishment of the Hasmonean Dynasty.
BC 141 Demetrios II (Nicator)
BC 140 The Moneyers, Wolf suckling twins 112/Pom1/57
BC 141-129 Antiochus VII, last Seleukid King of Syria
BC 138-129 Antiochus VII (Sidetes) 240/7095/58
BC 135 John Hyrcanus,High Priest,expands Judean territory and converts the Idumeans to Judaism.
BC 133 Asia Minor now province of Rome, who control all the Mediterranean except Egypt
BC 131 The Moneyers, L.Postumius Albinus 175/?/59
BC 129-125 Demetrios II (Nikator) Second Reign (See BC 145-140)
BC 128-123 Alexander II (Zebina)
BC 125-121 Cleopatra I - Antiochus VIII 152-7139/60
BC 125 Seleukos V The Moneyers, Porcia 117/Porc3/61
BC 121 Rome conquers Southern Gaul
BC 121- 96 Antiochos VIII (Grypos) 177/7143/63
BC 120 Mithradetes VI (Eupator) 233/?/?
BC 116 The Moneyers, M.Sergius Silus Sergia 156/1a/65
BC 114 The Moneyers, M.Amelius L Aemilia 157/Aem/66
BC 113 The Moneyers, P.Nerva, Voting in comitium 155/185/?
BC 113- 95 Antiochos IX (Kyzikenos)
**ROMAN LATE REPUBLICAN COINAGE**
BC 106 Pompey the Great (born) 181/302/68
BC 105 The Moneyers, L.Thorius Balbus 162/Thor1/69
BC 103-76 Alexander Jannaeus, King and High Priest 105/6087/70; Alexander Jannaeus 139/6089/71; Alexander Jannaeus 174/6088/72; Alexander Jannaeus (mounted as charm) 244/6089/71
BC 103 The Moneyers, Head of Mars 219/19/73
BC 100 Julius Caesar (Gaius Julio Caesar) (born).
BC 98-93 Philip Philadelphos 201/7214/75
BC 95-94 Seleukos VI (Epiphanes Nikator)
BC 95-63 Ariobarzanes I (Philoromaios) 221/7302/76
BC 95-98 Demetrios III (Philopator)
BC 93 Philip (Philadelphos)
BC 93 Antiochos XI (Epiphanes Philadelphos)
BC 92 City of Antiocheia in Syria 199/5853/77
BC 90 Civil war in Rome between Marius and Sulla. Marius driven out.
The Moneyers, C.Vibeus C F Pansa 135/2/78
BC 88 The Moneyers, Lucius Titurius Sabinus 116/222/79; The Moneyers, CN Lentulus Clodanius 121/50a/80
BC 88-84 Antiochos XII (Dionysos). Sulla (Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix) gains Consulship of Rome.
BC 87 Sulla deprived of his command by the Tribune Sulpicius, supported by his troops but not by his officers, marched on Rome and took the city by force.
BC 83-69 Tigranes II of Armenia.
BC 83 The Moneyers, C.Norbanus 154/Norb2/81
BC 81 Sulla elected Dictator.
BC 79 The Moneyers, L.Papius 158/Pap1/83; The Moneyers, Ti Claudius, serrated edge 131/6/82.
The Colisseum dedicated.
BC 73-71 Revolt of Slaves under Spartacus.
BC 69-64 Antiochos XIII (Asiatikos) - END OF SELEUKID DYNASTY.
BC 64 The Moneyers, L.Roscius Fabatus 173/3/84.
BC 63-12 Agrippa (Close friend of Augustus) 040/456/85; Agrippa, Crocodile chained to tree 206/455/86.
BC 63-324 AD THE ROMAN PERIOD IN ISRAEL.
BC 63 Roman General Pompey enters Israel to settle a civil war between the last of the Hasmonean princes and uses the occasion to annexe it as a Roman province.
Pompey captures Jerusalem 181/302/?
Judea now under Roman rule,Caesar confers privileges on Jews. Cicero becomes Consul in Rome.
BC 60 Caesar returns from Spain, elected Consul 072/309/?.
First Triumvirate:Pompey,Caesar and Crassus.
BC 58-51 Caesar campaigning in Gaul.
BC 54 Caesar invaded Britain for second time.
BC 49 Caesar crossed the Rubicon, the limit of his command, in defiance of the Roman Senate, precipitating the civil war. Pompey defeated by Caesar.
BC 48 Pompey murdered in Egypt. Herod Governor of Galilee.
The Moneyers, Albinus Brutt 120/Pos10/87.
BC 48 Caesar meets Cleopatra in Egypt.
BC 46 Adoption of Julian calendar of 365 days and leap year. Caesar appointed Dictator for 10 years.
The Moneyers, Titus Carisius 103/Car2/88.
BC 44 Caesar assasinated on the Ides of March (15th). Mark Antony takes command in Rome.
BC 43 Octavian (Gaius Octavius), Caesar's heir, is elected Consul and forms the Second Triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus.
BC 42 Second Triumvirate defeats Caesar's assassins at Philippi. Mark Antony becomes leader of Asia.
BC 41 Mark Antony meets Cleopatra in Egypt.
BC 40c C.Cassius Longinus (one of the assassins of Julius Caesar) 161/323/89.
BC 40 Mark Antony appoints Herod King of Judaea.
BC 39 Herod the Great appointed King of the Jews by the Roman Senate.
BC 38 Nero Claudius Drufus (Father of Claudius) 096/493/90.
BC 38 Livia, wife of Octavian 243/446/91.
BC 37-4 Herod, Prefect of Galilee, captures Jerusalem becomes King of Judea.
BC 34 Oldest known computer constructed in bronze. Recovered in AD 1953.
BC 33 Mark Antony 065/346/92.
BC 31 Roman fleets commanded by Mark antony defeated by Octavian at Actium, Egypt now Roman province.
BC 30 EGYPT: END OF PTOLEMAIC PERIOD with suicide of Cleopatra.
BC 30-AD 9c Rabbi Hillel flourished.
*ROMAN EMPERORS: THE JULIO-CLAUDIAN DYNASTY *
BC 27- AD14 On 16 January Octavian received the title Augustus from the Senate, becoming first Emperor of Rome. Amongst many honours conferred upon him, the month Sextilis was henceforth called Augustus (August) 029/?/93; Augustus 046/425/94; Augustus 082/419/95.
BC 25 Herod rebuilds Samaria.
BC 20 Claudius, Drufus, and Antonia 168/490?/96.
BC 19 Expansion of Temple Mount,renovation of Temple by Herod; Kingdom divided into Tetrarchies. In Judea and Samaria Archelus (etnarch),in Galilee, Herod Antipas and in the North East, Philip (tetrarch).
BC 15 Germanicus (adopted name Germanicus Julio Caesar, before adoption was Nero Claudius Germanicus), father of Caligula (Gaius Julius Caesar Germanicus) 102/500/97.
BC 4 Jesus born at Bethlehem (Probably correct date). Death of Herod. His kingdom divided among his three sons, one of whom, Archelaus, ruled in Jerusalem.
AD 6-9 Coponius, Procurator under Augustus 226/5606/98.
AD 14-37 Tiberius (Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus) 075/474/99.
AD 18-36 Caiphus High Priest, nationalist revival by the Jews. First resistance; sect of the Zealots. Lysanias, tetrarch of Damas.
AD 26-36 Pontius Pilate, Procurator of Judea provokes discontent with his policies.
AD 27 Pantheon built in Rome by Agrippa.
AD 28 Jesus baptised and starts public speaking.
AD 30 Death of Jesus.
AD 33 Christianity begins to spread in Samaria and Antioch.
AD 35 Conversion of St.Paul on the road to Damascus.
AD 37-100c Flavius Josephus, Jewish soldier, historian, author of 'The History of the Jewish Wars' which covers the revolts by the Jews in AD 66-70.
AD 37-44 Agrippa I,Grandson of Herod the Great 178/mes88/101.
AD 37-41 Gaius (Caligula), the third son of Germanicus and Agrippina the elder 101/521/100.
AD 40-51 Gotarzez II, King of Parthia 179/?/102.
AD 41-44 Herod Agrippa, King of all Judea, becomes Jewish and re-unites the tetrarchies.
AD 41-54 Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus) 022/537/103; Claudius 017/539/104; Claudius 232/500/105.
AD 43 Conquest of Britain by Rome begins.
AD 50c King Mega Soter 203/?/106.
AD 52-60 Antonius Felix (Procurator under Nero) 207/5627/107; Antonius Felix 222/5626/108.
AD 54-68 Nero (born Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, after adoption by Claudius he was named Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus) 014/?/109.
AD 55 City of Antioch 147/5187/110.
AD 64 Fire of Rome. Persecution of Christians by Nero.
AD 66 Jewish rising against Rome,great war of extermination.
AD 67-68 New revolt against the Romans.
AD 68 Clodius Macer.
AD 68-69 Second Revolt in Judaea (3rd Year) 185/k76/112.
AD 69 ROMAN EMPERORS - THE YEAR OF THE FOUR EMPERORS: Galba, Otho, Vitellius and Vespasian.
AD 68-69 Galba (Servius Sulpicius Galba), succeeded Nero, but the troops of the Rhine revolted against him under Vittellus, and he was killed on 15 January 69 BC. 083/623/111.
AD 69 Otho (Marcus Salvius Otho), self-declared Emperor from January to October 69BC. 230/647/114.
AD 69 Vitellius (Vitellius Aulus), Emperor April to December 69BC 126/654/113
AD 69-79 Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus) 064/?/115; Vespasian 073/677/116.
Before the fall of Jerusalem the Sage Yochanan Ben-Zakkai is allowed by Vespasian to move with his disciples to Yavne which then becomes the seat of the Sanhedrin or the Jewish High Court.
AD 70 Jerusalem besieged and taken by Titus, son of Vespasian. Second Temple destroyed in August.
AD 70-134 After Romans destroy the Second Temple, Rabbinical Sanhedrin moves to Yavneh, staying there until the start of the Bar Kochba revolt. The Jewish Biblical canon was arranged and finalised there.
AD 72 Vespasian began building of Colosseum in Rome.
AD 73 Masada falls to Roman General Silva; Jewish population scattered in Galilee and coastal areas.
AD 79 Mount Vesuvius erupts buries Pompei and Herculaneum.
Julia Titi, daughter of Titus 180/770/117.
AD 79-81 Titus 066/747/118; Titus 184/744/119; Titus (FORGERY) 245/?/246.
AD 81-96 Domitian 055/813/120; Domitian 182/444/121; Domitian 215/811/122.
AD 82 Arch of Titus built in Rome commemorating Titus's victory over the Jews.
AD 84 Construction began of Roman baths at Bath in Somerset.
* ROMAN EMPERORS: THE ADOPTIVE EMPERORS *
AD 96- 98 Nerva 100/849/123.
AD 98-117 Trajan 023/922/124; Trajan 093/911/125; Trajan 143/1078/126.
AD 106 Trajan destroys the desert civilisation of the Nabateans in the Negev and Transjordan, creating province of Arabia.
AD 114 Trajan's Column erected in Rome.
AD 116 Revolt against Rome by Jews outside Israel crushed by Trajan's General Quietus.
AD 117-138 Hadrian 053/1019/128; Sabina, wife of Hadrian 089/?/127.
AD 120 Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus publishes his De vita caesarum (Lives of the Caesars).
AD 122 Hadrian visited Britain.
AD 132-135 Bar Kochba revolt; Jerusalem renamed Aelia Capitolina by Hadrian and forbidden to Jews. Judea becomes Palestine. Galilee becomes centre of Jewish life and learning.
AD 136 Aelius, adopted son of Hadrian 133/1117/129.
AD 138-161 Antoninus Pius 039/1186/130.
AD 138-141 Faustina Senior, wife of Antoninus Pius 081/1267/131.
AD 161 Erection of Acropolis in Athens.
AD 161-180 Marcus Aurelius 024/1349/134; Faustina Junior, wife of Marcus Aurelius 015/1416/133.
AD 161-169 Lucius Verus Co-Emp with Marcus Aurelius 101/1454/132.
AD 177-192 Commodus 057/1508/136.
AD 177 Crispina, wife of Commodus 095/1592/135.
AD 182 Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus 097/1485/137.
AD 193 Pertinax.
AD 193 Didius Julianus.
AD 193-194 Pescennius Niger.
* ROMAN EMPERORS: THE SEVERAN DYNASTY *
AD 193-211 Septimius Severus 068/1682/139; Julia Domna,wife of Septimus Severus 087/1750/138.
AD 195-197 Clodius Albinus.
AD 198-217 Caracalla (Septimius Bassianus) 088/1790/140.
AD 200 Judah HaNasi compiles the Mishna.
AD 202 Plautilla, wife of Caracalla 183/1895/141.
AD 209-212 Geta, Co-Emperor with his brother Caracalla 069/1917/142.
AD 212-216 Baths of Caracalla constructed in Rome.
AD 212 Roman citizenship extended to all freemen within the Roman Empire.
AD 217-218 Macrinus 123/?/143.
AD 217 Diadumenian, Co-Emperor with his father Macrinus.
AD 218-222 Elagabalus 067/2003/144.
AD 218-224 Julia Maesa, sister of Julia Domna 134/2083/145.
AD 219 Julia Paula, wife of Elagabalus 213/2049/146.
AD 222-235 Severus Alexander 056/2160/148.
AD 222 Julia Soaemis, sister of Julia Domna 217/2070/147.
AD 235-238 Maximinus I (Thrax) 151/2253/151.
AD 235 Julia Mamaea 111/2206/149.
AD 235-238 Maximus Caesar,son of Maximinus I 078/2277/150.
* ROMAN EMPERORS: THE AGE OF MILITARY ANARCHY *
AD 238 Gordian I (Africanus).
AD 238 Gordian II.
AD 238 Balbinus.
AD 238 Pupienus.
AD 238-244 *Gordian III 047/?/152; Gordian III 079/2397/153.
AD 244-249 Philip I (The Arab) 054/2475/154; Philip I 144/2512/155.
AD 247 Philip II, Co-Emperor with his father Philip I 011/2571/156; Otacilla Severa, wife of Philip I 098/2542/157.
AD 248 Pacatian.
AD 248 Jotapian.
AD 249-251 Trajan Decius 085/2612/158; Herrenia Etruscilla, wife of Trajan Decius 129/2636/159.
AD 251 Herennius Etruscus, Co-Emperor with father Trajan 160/2640/160.
AD 251 Hostilian 218/2659/161.
AD 251-253 Trebonianus Gallus 071/2681/162.
AD 251-253 Volusian 115/2731/163.
AD 252 Rome's European provinces invaded by Goths and others.
AD 253 Aemilian.
AD 253-254 Uranius Antoninus.
AD 253-260 Valerian 043/2782/165.
AD 253-255 Valerian II, eldest son of Gallienus 132/2971/164.
AD 253-268 Gallienus 016/2892/167; Gallienus 018/2859/168; Salonina, wife of Gallienus 035/2947/169.
AD 253-260 Mariniana,wife of Valerian 165/2829/166.
AD 259 Saloninus, youngest son of Gallienus 077/2980/170.
* ROMAN EMPERORS: MILITARY RECOVERY *
AD 259 Postumus (Gallic Empire) 038/3010/172.
AD 260 Macrianus.
AD 260-261 Quietus 236/2998/171.
AD 260 Regalianus.
AD 267 Xenobia (The Palmyrene Empire).
AD 268-270 Claudius II (Gothicus) 033/3127/174.
AD 268 Laelianus (Gallic Empire).
AD 268 Marius (Gallic Empire).
AD 269 Victorinus(Gallic Empire) 032/3070/173.
AD 270-275 Aurelian 052/3158/181.
AD 270 Quintillus 062/?/175; Quintillus 084/3145/176; Severina, wife of Aurelian 119/3185/177
New wall built round Rome by Aurelian against barbarians.
AD 270-273 Tetricus I (Gallic Empire) 010/3080/178; Tetricus I (Gallic Empire 004/3078/180.
AD 270 Tetricus II (Gallic Empire) 094/3090/179.
AD 270 Domitianus (Gallic Empire).
AD 271-272 Vabalathus, Atheodorus (Palmyrene Empire) 009/3193/182.
AD 275-276 Tacitus 034/3205/183.
AD 276 Florianus 220/3226/184.
AD 276-282 Probus 012/3250/185; Probus 013/3256/186.
AD 280 Saturninus.
AD 282-283 Carus 058/4776/187.
AD 283-285 Carinus 059/3883/189.
AD 283 Numerian, Co-Emperor with his brother Carinus 086/3333/188.
AD 284 Julian.
AD 286-293 Romano-British coinage: Carausius 113/3467/193; Carausius 127/3473/194.
AD 293-296 Allectus 124/?/195.
* ROMAN EMPERORS: THE TETRARCHY AND THE HOUSE OF CONSTANTINE
AD 284-305 Diocletian 005/3433/190.
AD 286-305 Maximianus, Co-Emperor with Diocletian 050/3540/191; Maximianus 061/3531/192.
AD 290 Amphitheatre at Verona constructed.
AD 296-297 Domitius Domitianus.
AD 303 Intense persecution of Christians by Diocletian.
AD 305-306 Constantius I (Chlorus) 092/3571/196.
AD 305-311 Galerius Maximianus 091/3618/197; Galeria Valeria, wife of Galerius 164/3630/198; Galeria Valeria 176/3630/199.
AD 306-307 Severus II 170/3647/200.
AD 306-312 Maxentius 006/3676/201.
AD 306-337 Constantine I (The Great) 020/?/202; Constantine I 042/3762/205; Constantine I 002/3762/205; Constantine I 003/3778/203; Constantine I 036/3798/213; Constantine I 037/3790/214.
AD 307-326 Fausta, wife of Constantine I 163/3805/206.
AD 308-324 Licinius I 007/3704/207; Licinius I 041/3708/208.
AD 309-313 Maximinus II 070/3658/209.
AD 311 Alexander.
AD 312 Constantine defeated and killed Maxentius at battle of Milvian Bridge (Saxa Rubra), near Rome. Becomes sole Emperor of Rome, East and West
AD 313 Constantine grants toleration of Christianity, eventually becoming Christian himself.
AD 314 Valens (Note different Valens AD 364).
AD 317-324 Licinius II 166/3715/210.
AD 317-326 Crispus, eldest son of Constantine 021/3817/211.
AD 324 Martinian
Talmudic period; Onkelos translates bible into Aramaic in Babylonia.
AD 325 Helena, wife of Constantius, mother of Constantine I 118/3808/212.
AD 326 Helena comes to Holy Land and establishes churches.
AD 328 Byzantine Conquest.
AD 330 Constantinople now new capital of the Roman Empire. Beginning of the Byzantium Period, endured until 1452.
AD 335-337 Delmatius 122/3831/215.
AD 337-340 Constantine II 031/3851/216.
AD 337-350 Constans 051/3870/218.
AD 337-361 Constantius II 045/3900/219.
AD 337-340 Theodora, 2nd wife of Constantius Chlorus 130/3811/217.
AD 350-353 Magnentius 028/3921/226.
AD 350 Vetranio.
AD 350 Nepotian.
AD 351-353 Decentius, son of Magnentius 044/3934/221.
AD 351-354 Constantius Gallus 019/3954/222.
AD 360 Scrolls began to be replaced with books.
AD 360-363 Julian II 080/3963/223.
AD 363-364 Jovian 063/3986/224.
* ROMAN EMPERORS: THE HOUSE OF VALENTINIAN *
AD 364-375 Valentinian I 216/4002/225.
AD 364 Valens, brother of Val I (Not Val of AD314) 008/4017/226; Valens 114/4013/227; Valens 125/4018/228.
AD 365-366 Procopius.
AD 367-383 Gratian 026/4039/230; Gratian 025/4038/229; Gratian 048/4041/231.
AD 375-392 Valentinian II 216/4002/232; Valentinian II 030/4067/232; Valentinian II 049/4058/233; Valentinian II 074/4063/234.
AD 375 Barbarous Radiate 128/?/235; Barbarous Radiate 167/?/236.
* THE THEODOSIAN DYNASTY*
AD 379-395 Theodosius I (The Great) 027/4081/238.
AD 379 Aellia Flacilla, wife of Theodosius 099/4093/237.
AD 383-388 Magnus Maximus 076/4103/239.
AD 383-408 Arcadius 060/4133/240.
AD 387-38 Flavius Victor.
AD 392-394 Eugenius 172/4118/241.
AD 393-423 Honorius 090/?/242.
AD 395-404 Eudoxia,wife of Arcadius 171/4141/243.
AD 395 Roman Empire permanently divided into two halves, East and West. Eastern Empire lasted until 1452
AD 400 Final codification of the "Jerusalem" Talmud, actually written mostly in Tiberias.
AD 410 Alaric, King of the Visigoths, captures and sacks Rome.
AD 419 Visigoths found kingdom within Gaul.
AD 429 Visigoths found kingdom in Africa.
AD 452 Atilla the Hun threatens to sack Rome but is dissuaded by Pope Leo I.
AD 455 The Vandals sack Rome.
AD 476 Odoacer, a Germanic chieftan, deposes the last Western Emperor of Rome concluding the fall of the Roman Western Empire.
AD 527-565 Emperor Justinian responsible for building many churches during his reign, amongst them the Church of the Nativity in Jerusalem.
AD 614 Persian invasion results in destruction of many churches.
AD 622 Mohammed's "flight" from Mecca to Medina in Arabia.
Beginning of Islamic religion.
AD 628 Defeat of the Persians and restoration of Byzantine rule in Israel.
AD 632 Death of Mohammed. Arab Enpire now headed by a Caliph.
AD 636 Arab invasion of Israel.
AD 638 Arab Moslem conquest of Jerusalem by Caliph Omar; limited Jewish settlement in Jerusalem.
AD 650 Mosque of Omar built on site of Solomon's Temple.
AD 691 Caliph Abd-el-Malik builds Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
AD 775c Israel ruled by Baghdad based Abbasids.
AD 768 Charlemagne becomes King of the Franks.
AD 800 Charlemagne crowned Emperor.
AD 962 Otto the Great crowned Emperor in Germany.
AD 969 Israel ruled by Egyptian Fatimids.
AD 980 Anonymous Bronze (Byzantine) 225/?/244.
ROMAN EMPERORS 31 BC - AD 476
1 BC 31-AD 14 Augustus
2 14-37 Tiberius
3 37-41 Caligula
4 41-54 Claudius
5 54-68 Nero
6 69 Galba
7 69 Otho
8 69 Vitellius
9 69-79 Vespasian
10 79-81 Titus
11 81-96 Domitian
12 96-98 Nerva
13 98-117 Trajan
14 117-138 Hadrian
15 138-161 Antoninus Pius
16 161-180 Marcus Aurelius Joint Emp. with 17
17 161-169 Verus Joint Emp. with 16
18 180-192 Commodus
19 193-(87 days) Pertinax
20 193- Didius Julianus
21 193-211 Septimius Severus
21e 193-194 Pescennius Niger Rival emp. in the East
21w 195-197 Clodius Albinus Rival emp. in the West
22 211-217 Caracalla Joint Emp. with 23
23 211 Geta Joint Emp. with 22
24 217-218 Macrinus
25 218-222 Elagabalus
26 222-235 Severus Alexander
27 235-238 Maximinus I
28 238 Gordian I Joint Emp. with son, 29
29 238 Gordian II Joint Emp. with 28
30 238 Balbinus
31 238 Pupienus Joint emp with 30
32 238-244 Gordian III
33 244-249 Philip I
34 249-251 Trajanus Decius
35 251-253 Trebonianus Gallus
36 253 Aemilian
37 253-260 Valerian Joint emp. with 38
38 253-268 Gallienus Joint emp. with 37
38w 260-268 Postumus Rival Emp., ruler of the Gallo-Roman state.
39 268-270 Claudius II Gothicus
40 270 Quintillus
41 270-275 Aurelian
42 275-276 Tacitus
43 276 Florian
44 276-282 Probus
45 282-283 Carus
46 283-285 Carinus Joint emp. with 47
47 283-284 Numerian Joint emp. with 46
48 284-305 Diocletian Joint emp. with 49
49 286-305 Maximian Joint emp. with 48
49 307-308 Maximian Abdicated with 48, but re-elected
50 286/7-293 Carausius Breakaway emp. in Britain and northern Gaul
51 305-306 Constantius I Chlorus Joint emp. with 52
52 305-311 Galerius Joint emp. with 51/53
53 306-307 Severus II Joint emp. with 52
306-312 Maxentius Breakaway emperor
54 306-337 Constantine the Great Joint emp. with 55/56
55 308-324 Licinius Joint emp. with 54
56 310-313 Maximinus Daia Joint emp. with 54
57 337-340 Constantine II Joint emp. with 58/59
58 337-340 Constantius II Joint emp. with 57/58
59 337-350 Constans I Joint emp. with 57/58
60 337-361 Constantius II
350-353 Magnentius Breakaway emp. in the West.
61 361-363 Julian the Apostate. A truly great Emperor, he renounced Christianity in favour of the old Roman gods. His untimely death, campaigning against the Persians, changed the course of history in the West.
62 363-364 Jovian, a total nonentity and completely unfit to rule, restored Christianity as the state religion.
63 364-375 Valentinian I Joint emp. with 64
64 364-378 Valens (East) Joint emp. with 63
65 367-383 Gratian Joint emp. with 66/67 (Gratian and ValentinianII were brothers
66 375-392 Valentinian II Joint emp. with 65/67. Valentinian II, a youth, was almost totally controlled by the Frankish barbarian Abrogast, he was probably murdered by him.
67 379-395 Theodosius I the Great East, then whole Empire; initially joint emp. with 65/66. He died unexpectedly in the prime of his life aged 49. After his death the Roman Empire was finally split into East and West.
383-388 Maximus Rival emp. in the West. Defeated by Theodosius I.
395 Eugenius Rival emp. in the West. Succeded Valentinian II, made Emperor by Abrogast who totally controlled him. He was the last Emperor who tried to restore the heathen gods at the genuine request of the Roman Senate. Defeated by Theodosius I. His defeat dealt a death blow to the pagan cause in Rome.
68 395-423 Arcadius East - Joint emp. with 69
69 395-423 Honorius Joint emp. with 67
407-411 Constantine III Rival emp. in the West
70 408-450 Theodosius II East
71 421 Constantius III Joint emp. in the West
72 423-425 Johannes West
73 425-455 Valentinian III
74 450-457 Marcian Emperor in the East
75 455 Petronius Maximus Emperor in the West
76 457-474 Avitus Emperor in the West
77 455-456 Leo I the Great Emperor in the East
78 457-461 Majorian Emperor in the West
79 461-465 Libius Severus Emperor in the West
80 467-472 Anthemius Emperor in the West
81 472 Olybrius Emperor in the West
82 473-474 Glycerius Emperor in the West
83 474-475 Julius Nepos Emperor in the West
84 474-475 Zeno Emperor in the East
475-476 Basilicus Rival emp. in the East
84 476-499 Zeno Regained his throne
85 475-476 Romulus 'Augustulus' Compelled to abdicate by Odoacer, he was the last Roman Emperor in the West.
The Seleucid kingdom had two capitals: Antioch in Syria (now Antakya, Turkey) and Seleucia on the Tigris in Mesopotamia. The Seleucids were Greeks in language and culture, and they encouraged Greek colonists to settle in their domains. Nevertheless, in their autocratic rule they followed the example of their Syrian, Mesopotamian, and Persian predecessors. Beginning with Antiochus II, they were worshipped as gods. They were frequently involved in wars with the Ptolemies, a Macedonian dynasty that had established itself in Egypt. After 250 BC the Seleucids gradually lost control of the lands east of the Euphrates River and were expelled from Asia Minor. Syria, the last remaining part of their kingdom, was annexed by Rome in 64 BC.
© Peter Ghiringhelli and Ron Goldstein, 2004.
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